AgreenSkills session, year: 1st session, 2016
Receiving laboratory: Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) - University of Tromsø (UiT)
Country of origin : France
Inter-individual heterogeneity in melanism in a cyclically outbreaking geometrid: causes, consequences, and role in assisting range expansion through Fennoscandian forest
A major breakthrough in invasion biology is the consideration that range expansion brings into play a set of evolutionary forces at the front that apply differential selection on life-histories, like traits pertaining to thermal physiology in climate-induced range shifts. It is critical in univoltine defoliators that typically require synchronization with their host and reaching a resistant stage before winter. Maintaining synchronizations across climatic gradients is by no means trivial in ectotherms whose growth rates directly depend on climatic variations. We will tackle this issue in the winter moth Operophtera brumata thanks to its well documented northward expansion through Fennoscandia since the 1900s. Development of this cyclically outbreaking geometrid is constrained by phenological boundaries varying over years and along its range: hatching must match birch budburst, and cold-resistant eggs must be laid before the onset of winter. Several melanic forms of larvae locally coexist, with positive density-dependence of the frequency of dark larvae, but their adaptive significance is still unknown. Camouflage advantage on defoliated trees has been rejected, while costs on survival and enemy avoidance have been demonstrated. This is hard to reconcile with the sustained polymorphism, suggesting benefits to offset the survival handicap. We suspect that melanism may alter their development rate by modulating susceptibility to solar radiation, especially under northern Fennoscandia latitudes with permanent daylight during summer. Variations in melanism have long fostered curiosity in thermal biology, may be spatially structured to cope with phenological constraints along climatic gradients, and yield local heterogeneity as a bet-hedging strategy to reduce risks of phenological mismatches. Natural phenological and phenotype monitoring will be combined with respiratory assays and state-of-the-art metabolomics to test whether increased melanism provides increased growth rates. Untangling spatio-temporal heterogeneity of polymorphism will help assessing if it facilitates ongoing expansion and adequate phenology in a wider variety of climates.
I graduated from a Master 2 in Ecology, Evolution and Ethology in 2008. In 2011, I defended my PhD at the Université de Rennes 1 on the plasticity and evolution of invasive and native sub-Antarctic species regarding climate change and novel selective regimes. After CNRS and Temporary Lecturer jobs on similar research topics, I am now working at the Forest Zoology Research Unit (URZF, INRA Orléans, France) as Research scientist.
My research interests lie in the relationship between the durable success of invasive or range expanding species and the way they fit to the novel selection regimes encountered as they expand and/or disturb colonized habitats, as well as the facilitating effects of climate change. Such adjustments result from plastic and evolutionary changes, which I investigate using both field and experimental approaches (mainly tools in ecophysiology, metabolomics and morphometrics). I aim to address questions such as:
– how does the process of range expansion drive to evolutionary changes and syndromes?
– what is the role of plasticity (physiological, trophic, etc.) in the colonization of new environments?
– do invaders and native range expanders have scope to persist over the long term despite the ecological perturbations induced by their own residence?
I have been working on invasive and endemic insects of the sub-Antarctic islands in the past, and now focus on the climate change-induced northward range expansions of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) moth across Europe, as well as of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in northern Fennoscandia. I also contribute to projects on the European invasions of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis).
* Laparie :M., Vernon P., Cozic Y., Frenot Y., Renault D. & Debat V. 2016. Wing morphology of the active flyer Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) during its invasion of the Kerguelen Islands, a sub-Antarctic archipelago where insect flightlessness is the rule. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119, 179–193, DOI 10.1111/bij.12815;
Robinet C., Laparie :M. & Rousselet J. 2015. Looking beyond the large scale effects of global change: local phenologies can result in critical heterogeneity in the pine processionary moth. Frontiers in Physiology 6, 334, DOI 10.3389/fphys.2015.00334;
Renault D., Chevrier M., Laparie :M., Vernon P. & Lebouvier M. 2015. Characterization of the habitats colonized by the alien ground beetle Merizodus soledadinus at the Kerguelen Islands. Revue d’Écologie (Terre et Vie), Supp. 12 « Espèces invasives » 2015, 28–32;
* Laparie :M. & Renault D. 2016. Physiological responses to temperature in Merizodus soledadinus (Col., Carabidae), a subpolar carabid beetle invading sub-Antarctic islands. Polar Biology 39, 35–45;
Renault D., Lombard M., Vingère J. & Laparie :M. 2016. Comparative physiological salinity tolerance in native flies from the subantarctic Kerguelen islands: a metabolomic approach. Polar Biology 39, 47–56;
Laparie :M. & Roques A. 2014. What are the drivers of the pine processionary moth’s expansion? In Roques A. (Ed.), Processionary moths and climate change. Springer Quae, France, pp. 85–92;
* Laparie :M., Renault D., Lebouvier M. & Delattre T. 2013. Is dispersal promoted during range expansion of invasive species? Morphological analysis of a ground beetle invading the Kerguelen Islands, Merizodus soledadinus (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Biological Invasions 15, 1641–1648;
Hidalgo K., Laparie :M., Bical R., Larvor V., Bouchereau A., Siaussat D. & Renault D. 2012. Metabolic fingerprinting of the responses to salinity in the invasive ground beetle Merizodus soledadinus at the Kerguelen Islands. Journal of Insect Physiology 59, 91–100;
Siaussat D., Laparie :M., Maria A. & Renault D. 2012. Heat shock protein responses to salinity, food deprivation, and temperature in the invasive ground beetle Merizodus soledadinus at the Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biology 36, 201–209;
Laparie :M., Bical R., Larvor V., Vernon P., Frenot Y. & Renault D. 2012. Habitat phenotyping of two sub-Antarctic flies by metabolic fingerprinting: evidence for a species outside its home? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 162, 406–412;
Colinet H., Larvor V., Laparie :M. & Renault D. 2012. Exploring the plastic response to cold acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster through metabolomics. Functional Ecology 26, 711–722;
Laparie :M., Larvor V., Frenot Y. & Renault D. 2012. Starvation resistance and energetic consequences of prey choice in a predatory insect invading the Kerguelen Islands, the ground beetle Merizodus soledadinus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 161, 122–129;
* Lebouvier M., Laparie M., Hullé M., Marais A., Cozic Y., Lalouette L., Vernon P., Candresse T., Frenot Y. & Renault D. 2011 The significance of the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands for the assessment of the vulnerability of native communities to climate change, alien insect invasions and plant viruses. Biological Invasions 13, 1195–1208;
Laparie :M., Lebouvier M., Lalouette L. & Renault D. 2010. Variation of morphometric traits in populations of an invasive carabid predator (Merizodus soledadinus) within a sub-Antarctic island. Biological Invasions 12, 3405–3417.